Motor Classification and Working Principle

A motor is an electromagnetic mechanical device that converts electrical and mechanical energy into each other. Motors generally have two application forms. The first is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, which is called a generator. The second is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, which is called a motor. This blog post mainly describes motor classification and working principle.


Motor classification

  1. According to the classification of working power

It can be divided into DC motors and AC motors. Among them, AC motors are divided into single-phase and three-phase.


  1. Classification according to structure and working principle It can be divided into DC motor, asynchronous motor and synchronous motor.

The rotor speed of an asynchronous motor is always slightly lower than the synchronous rate of the rotating magnetic field. The rotor speed of the synchronous motor has nothing to do with the size of the load, and the synchronous speed is always maintained.


  1. Classification according to startup and operation mode

It can be divided into capacitor starting single-phase asynchronous motor, capacitor running single-phase asynchronous motor, capacitor starting running single-phase asynchronous motor and separate single-phase asynchronous motor.


  1. Classification by use

It can be divided into drive and control. Drive motors can be further divided into power tool motors, home appliances motors and other general-purpose small mechanical equipment motors. The control motor is divided into stepper, servo, speed measurement and so on.


  1. Classification according to rotor structure

It can be divided into squirrel induction motor and wound rotor induction motor.


  1. Classification according to working speed

It can be divided into high speed motor, low speed motor, constant speed electric motor and speed regulation motor.


Motor Working Principle 

The motor working principle is based on the law of electromagnetic induction and the law of electromagnetic force. When the motor performs energy conversion, there must be two main components that can perform relative motion: the component that creates the magnetic field, the detection component that detects the electromotive force and the flowing working current. Among these two parts, the stationary one is called the fixed frame, and the rotating action is called the rotor. There is an air gap, and the rotor will rotate.

Electromagnetic torque is caused by the interaction of the magnetic field of the air gap and the magnetic field set by the current of the inductive component. Through the action of electromagnetic torque, the generator absorbs mechanical power from the mechanical system, and the motor outputs mechanical power to the mechanical system. Different types of motors are formed due to the different manufacturing methods of the above-mentioned two magnetic fields.

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