Science and Technology
Everyone in modern society is enjoying the convenience brought by vacuum technology. E.g:
The secret to keeping the kettle warm is that there is a vacuum in the wall of the bottle, which reduces heat conduction and keeps the temperature inside the kettle.
The interior of fluorescent lamps, street lamps, and car lighting is also in a vacuum state, otherwise it will not be able to emit light.
TVs, computer monitors, etc. are also inseparable from vacuum.
In order to improve the light transmittance of glasses, video cameras, and camera lenses, the optical film coated on the surface also applies vacuum technology.
The field of surface science places extremely high demands on vacuum. The clean surface of the substance is obtained by high temperature annealing or combined ion sputtering in a very high vacuum environment without any other molecules or atoms adsorbed to the surface. Using cutting-edge surface analysis experiments such as scanning tunneling electron microscopy, the atomic arrangement and electronic state of the material surface can be seen.
The development of new materials is inseparable from vacuum. The thin film growth technology represented by molecular beam epitaxy is an important method for the development of new materials. The thin film material is evaporated or sublimated after being placed in the evaporation source. In the ultra-high vacuum environment, the atoms or molecules of the thin film material can fly long distances to reach the substrate and form into a film. The purity of the film formed on the surface of the substrate is high due to less residual gas.
The most cutting-edge particle accelerator in physics is a combination of large-scale vacuum technology. Electrons (or other charged particles) are to be accelerated to near the speed of light, and if the electron storage ring is not in an ultra-high vacuum state, the electrons collide with molecules or atoms in them and decay rapidly. In addition, the nuclear fusion reaction must reach a high temperature of hundreds of millions of degrees, and an extremely high vacuum environment is the basic premise for the system to work.
The military industry and space development are also inseparable from vacuum technology. Stealth aircraft or submarines must absorb radar waves to the maximum extent to achieve the purpose of not being detected. The materials that absorb radar waves applied to aircraft or submarines are nano particles obtained by utilizing vacuum technology. The development of the universe is even more inseparable from vacuum technology, because the universe itself is in a state of ultra-high vacuum. The materials used in spacecraft, docking technology, and astronauts' space suits all are the crystallization of vacuum technology.